Most common pain in the toes are causes by corns. A corn is a build up of dead skin and is ALWAYS caused by pressure. A corn has no root and no reason to stay or regrow other than pressure applied to it, pressure from footwear is by far the most common cause of a corn.
Arthritis causes pain in the joint if the joint is forced to move. A common condition is a bunion where the big toe is deflected across the other toes. Hammer toes are also an arthritic condition where the toes are crooked and stiff to move, they can often have a corn or callus associated with them because footwear often rubs them.
Pain behind the toes
It is possible to sprain the front of the foot resulting in pain on walking and tenderness on pressure. Control of the forefoot is essential for a rapid recovery.